Posted by: pendeka7 | June 8, 2010

week 7 and 8

week 7 was basically the week in IT department because ive spent most of the days in that particular week doing preventive maintenance with the AMSS crew. We went to Kem Sungai Besi and TUDM Sungai Besi for the routine. The other thing I did were following NAVI AID crew to SM NDB site to install the system back in and followed Ms Azidah Laily to FRCC, DCA to update the dockets.

for week 8, I spent most of the time at the office revising on ARINC. ARINC is the short name for Aeronautical Radio Incorporated. ARINC is a company from the United States. It provides transport communications and systems engineering solutions for eight industries: (aviation, airports, defense, government, healthcare, networks, security, and transportation).

The Engineering Department at Aeronautical Radio, Inc (ARINC), in an effort to reduce crew workload and improve data integrity, introduced the ACARS system in July 1978. Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) is a digital datalink system for transmission of short, relatively simple messages between aircraft and ground stations via radio or satellite. The protocol, which was designed by ARINC to replace their VHF voice service and deployed in 1978, uses telex formats. SITA later augmented their worldwide ground data network by adding radio stations to provide ACARS service. The content of ACARS’ messages are the take off times to location reports, broken equipment reports, passengers on board etc.

Posted by: pendeka7 | May 25, 2010

week 5 and week 6

ahah! we have a double combo here..hehe

for week 5, i followed AMSS (Auto Messaging Switching System) to Kem Sungai Besi for pilot test. Pilot test is actually to upgrade leased line to IP VPN concept. there’s two way of testing it which the first is without NX. NX from my understanding is like the firewall on your computer and the other test means is with the NX itself.

for week 6,  i followed the Radio Comm crew to DCA to monitor and record the interference from Bukit Bakar line. We did some testing on the system’s feedback as well. Me and my intern mate also had the chance to go up to the tower to see how the air traffic is being controlled by the DCA staffs. Its a very risky job i tell you and need a lot of concentration when doing it because there are millions of lives involved!

then, i also got the chance to go up high to genting highland! not to enjoy there tho but went to one of the tower site which is at Ulu Kali. the place is higher than the genting theme park.

thats the wrap for both weeks i guess…wait for later update for week 7 ya 😉

Posted by: pendeka7 | May 12, 2010

week 4

zzzzz…yea its quite a passive week  since we’ve been staying in the training room, getting some classes about microwave and radio communication..

1st class was held by encik abdul aziz, the person in charge for apmm contract which is about the microwave system for sea surveillance.

2nd class was about radio communication system between the aircraft and the control tower held by encik kamaruddin, the technical officer in this department.

(details about this will be updated later)

3rd class or rather quite a quick lesson by encik hafiz, was about AFTN the communication path used by the army to connect among them. it has the same system as the common aircraft system, just different frequency or i would rather say different ‘highway’.

4th class and also a quick one was class with encik affendi or known as pak pen, about radio and this time he showed us the map and where the all the towers is located.

that was pretty much what I had on fourth week and those information became very tricky and confusing when they got into the circuits and electronics thingy (i’m not very good at it unfortunately) yet i pretty much confident ive grabbed the basic on how the system works.. 😉

Posted by: pendeka7 | April 29, 2010

week 3 update (finally!)

actually there’s nothing much we did except going to a few lighthouses for monthly maintenance. I’ve never expected of going up (climbing up actually) the lighthouse..It was quite tiring yet memorable experience. I wont think i would be able to climb it up again after this internship period unless i got employed by TM after i graduated 😉

alrite lets get back to business.

i was actually following Radio, ILS and NDB & DVOR team this month but since there’s not much work to do in that department, encik aziz invited us to follow him for maritime department this week.

so on the 19th of april 2010, we (me n diza) followed encik aziz and encik abdullah zawawi whom accompanied by 2 APMM (Agensi Penguatkuasaan Maritim Malaysia or Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency) officer, Encik Sabri and Encik X (i dont know his name) to Pulau Angsa lighthouse, which is the radar system services (RSS) owned by APMM to do the monthly maintenance routine.

this unit basically maintain the line of communication for APMM who is doing the surveillance for Malaysian waters.  analogically, TM is just like PLUS where it provides roads for us from a place to another. while APMM is like the police traffic who enforce the rules and regulations on the road, which similarly, APMM surveil the traffic at the sea. APMM is actually one of TM customers.

So TM here has to ensure that the line is always in a good condition for APMM, hence, the monthly check. As I mentioned in the earlier post, lighthouse is a restricted area for it is afraid that there will be interference to the system. A lighthouse called as the radar system services (RSS) usually has its pair which is the TM Exchange station. For Pulau Angsa, the pair is Bukit Melawati meanwhile for One Fathom Bank (OFB), which is situated 23 nautical miles from the coast of Selangor, is Pulau Ketam. Last but not least, Bukit Jugra is the pair for Bukit Klang.

Each of them has their own pair because, when RSS fire/transmit the microwave from the lighthouse, it will transmit it to TM Exchange and the pair will receive the wave and send it to the center.

We went to OFB on the 20th while Jugra on 21st of April.

OFB on the map

On 22nd and 23rd we did some revision on those 3 lighthouses we visited.

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Posted by: pendeka7 | April 28, 2010

M virus

well yea, you guess it right. I’m currently suffering from “M” virus that prevent me from updating this blog..hehe will update it…emm..soon i guess.. 😉

Posted by: pendeka7 | April 21, 2010

week 3

have you ever been inside a lighthouse?

i bet you have not and would not have the chance unless you’re with  an authorized person. fyi, lighthouse is a restricted area and nobody can enter it except the person who is in charge in maintaining it or the equipment inside.

if you havent been inside the lighthouse, i bet you havent been to climb all the way up to the light  or even the equipment room up there.

have you ever been to witness how busy it is the busiest strait in history? and been in the middle of the sea?

well, wait for later this week as i will post up some pictures of the lighthouses ive been to and also the experience of witnessing the traffic in malacca strait.

ive another lighthouse to go to so stay tuned! 🙂

for you, apicture as a teaser 😉

Angsa Island Lighthouse adventure

Posted by: pendeka7 | April 21, 2010

week 2

ok as i told you earlier, im gonna update the blog by weekly basis because of some time constrain. on weekdays i usually fall flat after the work hours and just think about getting some rest and what not. same goes to weekend but still can update a few since all days are just relaxing.

now i know how tired it is to find a penny..well, if you love the job, it is not that tired as you’ll enjoy doing not saying that i hate to undergo this intership, i know its not easy to become a good engineer, but you know, its something big to me, having have to apply all the theories ive learnt through my life as a whole, not just what ive gain in school n college.

alrighty, getting back on the are the summary on what i did during this 2nd week:

day 1:

visited the controller tower, localizer and gp stations for preventive maintenance. the controller tower is where the remote control of the localizer is placed.  this will make the maintenance job easier as they dont have to go to the station itself to check the data.

day 2:

Visited SM and KL NDB stations in Puchong and Glenmarie for preventive maintenance.

-SM = Sierra Mike

-KL = Kilo Lima

day 3

Did some revision online and from the notes given on what I have learned on NDB and DVOR

day 4

Visited NDB stations in Kg Kubu gajah and Calidonian Estate and DVOR station in Batu Arang (code: VBA = Victor Bravo Alpha)

Haji Din taught us more on DVOR

day 5

followed Miss Azidah to DCA (Department of Civil Aviation)

Posted by: pendeka7 | April 12, 2010

5th day – Comm

today i followed comm crew to AMSS room in DCA. There were a slight problem with the communication between the air craft and the controller so they needed to fix something there.

I was not feeling well today so just followed them until 12pm then i took the rest of the day off and went to the clinic. i was down with fever and some throat n palate inflammation.

Posted by: pendeka7 | April 10, 2010

4th day – ILS

I know, i’m getting lazy to update as the day pass by..i might just have to update it by weekly basis i guess..all im thinking everyday after work hour  is rest or specifically lying on the bed and finally fall asleep, yea thats the best remedy..anyway, i’ll try my best to update this blog as i believe it will eventually help me writing my report at the end of this 3-month-training. ok, lets go back to the track now people.

last thursday, i got the opportunity to step in the runway- not the fashion walkway where the models have to sell the apparels they are wearing, but the air craft runway, where the planes take off and landing of course. Yea, this is real my friend..its like one in a lifetime chance. its not easy to get in there unless you have the required authorization. anyway, the person in charge of bringing the two of us here was haji kamarudin, better known as haji din. he is the most experienced person about ILS in malaysia and his knowledge about not just ILS itself, but the whole thing is VAST. I wish he was one of my lecturers as he explained us everything about ILS in the view that we could easily understand. (hee but still cant absorbed that much though coz there were a few things that i pretty much first heard about it when he explained).

so what is ILS anyway, im afraid youve been wanting to know the answer from the beginning of this post.

ILS is actually Instrument Landing Systems that consist of some devices such as localizer, glide path, markers and approach lighting system. all these devices are very important upon the take off and landing of an air plane. so take this seriously please as if youre on plane, do abide by all the instructions given by the pilot because if you dont, your life is at stake.


A localizer is one the component of ILS. The localizer provides runway centerline guidance to aircraft. In some cases a localizer is at an angle to the runway usually due to obstructions around the airport. It is then called a Localizer Type Directional Aid. Localizers also exist in stand-alone instrument approach installations and are not always part of an ILS. The Localizer is placed about 1,000 feet on the far end of the approached runway. Its useful volume extends to 18 NM for the path up to 10 degrees either side of the course. For an angle of 35 degrees either side of the course the useful volume of the Localizer extends up to 10 NM. Horizontal guidance gets more accurate the closer you fly to the Localizer station. Localizer approaches have their specific weather minimums found on approach plates.

Glide path

Glide path or widely known as the glide slope is the signal that provides vertical guidance to the aircraft during the ILS approach. The standard glide-slope path is 3° downhill to the approach-end of the runway. Follow it faithfully and your altitude will be precisely correct when you reach the touchdown zone of the runway.

glide path mathematically

glide path antenna

Markers Beacon

The marker beacons used with the ILS are low powered, operate on a frequency of 75MHz and radiate a fan shaped field pattern. There are usually two marker beacons:

Outer Marker

The outer marker is located approximately 3.9 nautical miles from the runway threshold and is aligned across the front beam of the localiser. Its purpose is to provide height, distance and equipment functioning checks to aircraft on final approach. It is modulated at 400-hertz and keyed to transmit dashes continuously at a rate of two per second.

Middle Marker

The middle marker, also a fan marker, is aligned across the front beam of the localiser and is situated approximately 1050 metres from the runway threshold. Its purpose is to indicate the imminence, in low visibility conditions, of visual approach guidance. This marker is modulated at 1300-hertz and keyed to transmit alternate dots and dashes.


visual simualtor on how an aircraft land following the glide path is here.

Posted by: pendeka7 | April 8, 2010

3rd day- NDB, DVOR

more acronyms to learn huh? ok so today I followed encik azhar and uncle nathan to couple of NRB and a DVOR sites in Batu Arang, Selangor. So what is NDB and DVOR?


The acronym actually stands for Non-Drectional Beacon. It is a low or medium frequency (200kHz – 600kHz) radio transmitter radiating omni-directionally an RF carrier 95% amplitude modulated by an interrupted 400 or 1020 Hz tone giving the Morse Code identification (iden) of the particular NDB station at least once every 30 seconds. The airborne receiver picking up this radiation of flight with respect to this NDB with the aid of its radio compass and its magnetic compass.

NDB’s in this country generally fall into low powered beacons radiating 80W of power giving around 60-70 nautical miles than 150 nautical miles coverage. The limits of the coverage are determined by the areas where the field strength at the airborne receiver is 70 microvolts per meter or more. The NDB utilizes a vertical antenna with elaborate earth mats, which can give good omni directional coverage up to the height aircraft nomally fly (up to 40000 ft)

All NDBs have their own identification code (eg “PR” for Parit Buntar, “PK” for Pekan), and all their locations on the ground are gazette or “notamed” in official documents circulated to aircraft operators.

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Location of NDB Station:

-On center line of a civil airways at interval of about 150km

-At specific reporting point

-At junctions in the airways

-At or near airport

Well, I bet you wont  understand much the technical description above so here is kinda the analogy for NDB. In normal road on the ground, you have sign boards that lead you to your destination. It will tell you which way to go, when to turn left or right or what so ever. NDB acts the same way as the sign boards which is giving direction for the aircraft to its planned destination. The only difference is, how those NDBs give the direction. On air, we dont have land to ground the sign boards for the plane hence we use radio frequency as the medium. Here all dsp knowledge  come into play (you know, about the modulation, sinusidal wave etc). When NDBs transmit the signal, then how do the aircrafts receive it?

NDB Operation by the pilot

The pilot tunes into the next NDB along its route and uses the aircraft’s directional antenna and display unit to fly his aircraft towards the beacon. Once the aircraft has over-flown the beacon, the pilot can retune the radio to the next NDB and continue his flight. Each NDB has a different frequency and transmits a 2 or 3 letters identification signal in Morse code so that the pilot will not mistakenly fly towards the wrong beacon.

On the aircraft flight deck, an instrument called the the Radio Magnetic Indicator (or radio compass) displays the direction (magnetic bearing) of the NDB to the pilot. This instrument has two pointers so that the direction of two NDBs can be displayed at the same time.

so that is pretty much it about NDB. You can google more about it and I bet those people who is doing their intern in MAS would know more about this. 😉

ready to know another device for navigation aid? you can stop reading here if you want or else just continue reading to know more 😉


The long name for this device is Doppler Very High Omni Range. A DVOR is a navigational aid that operates in the very high frequency part of the frequency spectrum (108 – 118 MHz). A VOR forms part of rho-theta (flq) navigational systems. Using these systems, a pilot can accurately and reliably determine his bearing and distance from a reference point. The VOR provides the bearing (q) information. VOR stations are ground based and could be used for enroute as well as terminal purposes.

A DVOR usually has 48 antenna arranged in a circular shape with one antenna in the middle.

DVOR antenna consists of 48 sideband antennas and 1 carrier antenna in the middle


Uncle Nathan and Encik Azhar is doing some checking at the reading as for their weekly maintenance

oscilloscope to detect any error from the antenna

This DVOR navigation method relies on ground based transmitters which emitted signals to DVOR receiver in the aircraft. The DVOR system operates in the VHF frequency band, from 108.0 to 117.95 MHz. For optimum operation the aircraft must be on the minimum altitude of 1000 feet above ground in order to pick up an Omni signals service range.

Most VOR stations also have distance-measuring equipment (DME). A display indicator in the aircraft reads the signals and tells the pilots if they are on course and how far they are from the station. VOR-DME systems are limited in range to 160 miles and can only provide direct courses to or from a given station.

so yea, that basically little things about NDB and DVOR plus the DME. quite fascinating isn’t it? i thought this would only be experienced by those who are doing their intern in MAS but little did i know, TM is the back bone in this kind of services all this while. On this 3rd day, i followed uncle nathan and encik azhar to a few of these stations- November Mike  Beacon (NM Beacon with the NM is actually the iden for that station) in Kampung Kubu Gajah, Sg Buloh, Charlie Echo Beacon (CE Beacon) in Calidonian Estate in Batu Arang, and last but not least, Victor Bravo Alpha DVOR/DME (VBA DVOR/DME) station in Batu Arang, Kuala Selangor.

Ok folks, so more info on this kind of equipments ahead..Stay tuned!

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